Vulvar cancer is a kind of cancer that affects the vulva, which is the external genitalia. After skin cancer, it is the second most frequent cancer in women. This medical condition is more likely in older women (50-69 years old), women with a significant family history of vulvar cancer, or women with a kind of vulvar cancer that is particularly difficult to cure. In this article, we will discuss the origins, symptoms, and therapies for vulva cancer.

What is Vulvar Cancer?

Vulvar cancer is a form of cancer that develops on the female genitalia’s outer surface. The vulva is the skin area that covers the vagina and urethra, as well as the labia and clitoris. This cancer often manifests as a sore or lump on the vulva, which induces itching. It may develop at any age. However, it is most usually detected in elderly persons.

Surgery to remove the tumor and a modest portion of surrounding healthy tissue is frequently employed to cure vulvar cancer. Vulvar cancer surgery may need the removal of the whole vulva. The sooner vulvar cancer is detected, the less probable it will require significant surgery for therapy.

Vulvar Cancer Symptoms

It is anticipated that just 5-10% of vulvar cancer cases are diagnosed in the early stages, leaving most women with little to no chance of survival. However, the odds of surviving vulva cancer are promising with early identification. Here are some vulva cancer warning symptoms and indications to look out for:

  • 1. Differences in the color of the vulvar skin.
  • 2. Vulvar lumps or growths resemble an ulcer, a wart, a rash, or any other irritation that doesn’t cure.
  • 3. Burning or itching in the vulvar region that persists.
  • 4. Wart-like growths
  • 5. Sensitivity
  • 6. Thickened skin
  • 7. Melanoma patients’ dark discoloration
  • 8. Bleeding in the vulvar region is not caused by menstruation (periods).
  • 9. Tenderness and pain around the vulvar.
  • 10. Pelvic discomfort during peeing or sex.

Causes Of Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar cancer develops if cell growth becomes uncontrollable. Some cancers cause harm to the human body by causing damaged cells to proliferate uncontrolled, resulting in masses or lumps of tissue or tumors. Tumors can spread and disrupt bodily functions. A benign tumor remains in one location and doesn’t grow, whereas a malignant tumor expands and causes additional damage. Malignancy develops when two events occur:

  • 1. A malignant cell uses the lymph systems or blood to spread through the body, killing healthy tissue in the procedure termed invasion.
  • 2. Through a process known as angiogenesis, the cell multiplies and expands, forming new blood vessels to nourish itself.

Cancer can develop and expand to other body places if not treated. This is known as metastasis. If it penetrates the lymphatic system, it has the potential to spread to other areas of the body, particularly crucial organs.

Treatment Of Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar carcinoma can be treated in four ways. Your healthcare practitioner will explain which form of treatment is appropriate for vulvar cancer. Treatments available for vulvar cancer have included the following:


The most frequent therapy for vulva cancer is surgery. Surgery aims to eliminate all of the malignancy while preserving sexual function. Surgical procedures include:

Laser treatment

A laser beam is used in this surgery to produce bloodless incisions in tissue or to eliminate malignant surface lesions.

Local Excision

This procedure eliminates cancer and a modest to a significant quantity of normal tissue surrounding it. Occasionally, adjacent lymph nodes are removed.


The vulva and maybe some adjacent lymph nodes are removed during this surgical surgery. Skin grafts can be employed to repair skin that has been removed.

Pelvic Exenteration

The lower colon, bladder, rectum, cervix, ovaries, vagina, and surrounding lymph nodes are all eliminated during this procedure. Artificial apertures allow urine and feces from the body to pass into a collecting bag.

Surgery may be accompanied by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to eliminate any leftover cancer cells.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation treatment destroys cancer cells by employing high-energy x-rays and other forms of radiation. Topical radiation therapy employs a machine to administer radiation via the skin to the cancer spot. Internal radiation treatment employs a radioactive chemical encapsulated in seeds, needles, wires, or catheters inserted directly into or near the malignancy. The mode of radiation treatment delivery is determined by the kind and stage of the cancer being addressed.


Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment. It can fight tumors across the body whether given orally or injected directly into a vein or muscle. Chemotherapy administered straight into the spinal column, an organ, or a bodily cavity like the abdomen or given freely to the skin in the form of a lotion or cream treats cancer more effectively – in those regions. The kind of chemotherapy used is determined by the phase and cancer type.

Biologic Therapy

Biologic therapy is a treatment that employs lab-created or naturally occurring chemicals to boost the immune system or treat cancer. A biologic treatment such as imiquimod cream is employed to cure precancerous vulvar lesions.

Stages Of Vulvar Cancer

Yes. When vulvar cancer is identified, it is classified according to its stage, which indicates how widely it has grown. There are four significant phases to consider:

Phase I

Cancer is exclusively visible on the perineum or the vulva at this stage. Stage I is further subdivided into IA & IB depending on tumor size and dissemination into the tissue.

Phase 2

Cancer has progressed into the lower section of the urethra, the anus at this stage, or the lower part of the vagina. Cancer has not grown to any of the lymph nodes.

Phase 3

The malignancy has progressed to one or more neighboring lymph nodes at this phase. Stage III has been further subdivided into IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC according to the size and number of affected lymph nodes.

Phase 4

Cancer has progressed to the upper section of the urethra, vagina, or other body regions at this phase. Stage IV is subdivided into IVA and IVB depending on whether the spread is limited to the vulva or disseminated widely.

If you’ve been recognized with any phase of cancer, contact your healthcare provider to describe what that phase involves.

Vulvar Cancer Age

Vulvar cancer rises with age, but it can develop at any age. The most frequent kind of female vaginal cancer is vulvar cancer, which affects women of all ages. The age at which women get vulvar cancer varies, although it is usually between the ages of 50 and 75. HPV infection, being overweight or obese, smoking, and using high-risk products (like sunscreens) are all risk factors for vulvar cancer. However, not every woman carries the same chance of getting vulvar cancer.

Who is affected by vulvar cancer?

You are more likely to develop vulvar cancer if you have the following issues:

  • 1. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN)
  • 2. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • 3. Record of genital warts?
  • 4. Vulvar skin problems, like lichen sclerosus
  • 5. Increasing age

Other potential risk factors are as follows:

  • 1. Having a lot of sexual partners.
  • 2. Possessing a record of irregular Pap tests
  • 3. Experiencing a medical issue that causes your immune system to weaken
  • 4. Being a smoker

Vulvar cancer is most commonly found in women aged 65 to 74. On the other hand, Vulvar cancer is becoming increasingly frequent in younger females.

Vulvar Cancer Diagnosis

The healthcare professional will inquire concerning your health, covering current and previous diseases, medical problems, treatments, and family history. You will also undergo a physical checkup to assess your general health. The following tests and methods are used to detect vulvar cancer:

Checking your vulva

Your doctor will probably undertake a physical exam of the vulva to check for abnormalities.

Colposcopy Exam

A colposcope is magnification equipment with a light employed to see the vagina, vulva, and cervix in further detail. The colposcope can be utilized to observe the tissue in greater detail throughout a pelvic or vulvar exam. A brown-colored paint or weak acetic acid solution is frequently administered to the tissue of interest whenever the colposcope is employed to highlight aberrant cells that are not visible to the naked human eye.

Biopsy (Taking a tissue sample for testing)

The doctor may instruct you to remove a sample of skin for screening to establish if an area of problematic skin on the vulva is cancerous. A local anesthetic is used to sedate the region before removing all or a portion of the affected area using a scalpel or other appropriate cutting tool.

When to see a doctor?

Vulva cancer is a form of cancer that affects the vulva or the female genitalia on the outside. It is one of the most frequent cancers in women, yet it is also one of the most curable. The prognosis is favorable when vulva cancer is detected early and treated appropriately. Surgery, radiation treatment, or chemotherapy may treat vulva cancer. You should consult a doctor if you notice any unexpected changes in your vulva, such as discomfort, swelling, redness, or discharge. Discuss these symptoms with your physician so that they can offer you the best treatment plan available.


The blog contains all the details about the causes, symptoms, phases, and treatments for vulvar cancer. Symptoms of vulva cancer may include itching, pain, and discharge from the vagina. You must see a doctor for an evaluation if you are experiencing any of these symptoms. Treatment of vulva cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these treatments. It is better to diagnose cancer early and treat them successfully.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does cancer on the vulva look like?

There is no definite response to this topic since vulvar cancer can appear in several ways. However, a few of the most frequent signs of vulvar cancer are thick and yellowish vaginal discharge, itching or burning when urinating, discomfort during sex, soreness following inspection, and tenderness upon probing.

What are the symptoms of vulva cancer?

Discomfort during intercourse or when using tampons is one of the symptoms that women may feel in the early stages of cancer. They may later notice changes in their vaginal discharge, which may be heavier than usual. Furthermore, vulva cancer frequently produces redness, swelling, itching, and pain.

What are the most common causes of vulva cancer?

There is no definite cause for vulva cancer, but a combination of factors usually causes it. Some of the most common causes of vulva cancer include HPV (human papilloma virus), uncontrollable cell growth, and smoking.

Can vulva cancer be cured?

Yes, vulva cancer can be cured in some cases. The main reason why is through surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

What is the best treatment for vulva cancer?

There is no definitive cure for vulva cancer, but various treatments may be successful in achieving the best possible outcome for patients. The most common treatment for vulva cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapies.

How do you check for vulva cancer?

If you see anything strange on your vulva, such as colored vaginal discharge, pain during sex or when peeing, or itching, consult a doctor immediately. Self-examination is the most effective method of detecting vulva cancer. This entails carefully examining your whole genital area for lumps or pimples. If you observe any irregularities, visit a medical practitioner for additional examination.

What does the pre-cancer of the vulva look like?

There are various precancerous lesions on the vulva, each with unique characteristics. Dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and fibroepithelial carcinoma are all examples of precancerous lesions.

What can be mistaken for vulvar cancer?

Vulvar cancer is infrequent and might be misdiagnosed as genital condylomata.

How serious is cancer of the vulva?

Vulva carcinoma is a dangerous disease that should not be treated lightly. Vulva cancer symptoms include persistent itching, vaginal bleeding, pain during sex, and dark or black vaginal discharge. If you observe any of these symptoms, you should seek medical attention as soon as possible.

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