Types of Vascular Surgery

Your vascular system includes the veins and arteries which provide oxygen to every living cell within your body. Serious difficulty occurs when these blood vessels are blocked, and it can be treated by Vascular Surgery.

Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which medical treatment, minimum-invasive catheter procedures and surgical reconstruction are carried out for diseases of the vascular system or the arteries, veins and lymph circulation. Vascular disease is treated using open surgery techniques and endovascular techniques. The Vascular Surgeon is trained to diagnose and treat diseases in all parts of the vascular system except for coronary heart attacks and intra-cranial vasculature.

Symptoms of Vascular Diseases

As people age, vascular diseases seem to be common. In the early stage, most vascular diseases do not show symptoms, so people do not know that they have any disease. You may have a vascular disease or disorder that needs treatment if you experience any of following symptoms. Varicose veins and spider veins are some of the most common diseases that make veins very apparent or form a spider-like pattern beneath the skin.

Peripheral Artery Disease

a. Numbness in legs

b. Hair loss on legs

c. Weakness and pain in legs

d. Brittle toenails, slow toenail growth

e. Lethargy

f. Ulcers or sores on the leg

g.  Shiny or pale blue appearance of leg

h. Erectile Dysfunction

i. Foot or leg may feel cold

Aortic Aneurysm

a. Sweaty skin

b. Sudden back or abdominal pain

c. Pain spreading from abdomen to leg

d. Increased heart rate

e. Shock or unconsciousness

Individuals at Risk

As we age, the prevalence of vascular disease is increasing. The following factors increase your probability of vascular problems:

a. Family history

b. Increasing age

c. Pregnancy

d. Injury

e. Smoking 

f. Prolonged periods of inactivity and sitting

g. Diabetes

h. Lack of exercise

i. Obesity

j. Hypertension


Types of Vascular Surgery

Depending on the problem, there are different types of vascular surgery. Some of the conventional techniques used to address your vascular system problems are listed below.

1.  Interventional Radiology

Interventional radiology offers minimally invasive image guidance for a diagnostic operation. This helps to diagnose or treat vascular disease correctly. If you have clear vascular disease symptoms, your doctor would advise you to consult a vascular surgeon that will most probably ask you for an interventional radiation therapy. Depending on vascular disease, there is a broad range of intervening radiology. Some of them open and narrow blocked vessels by using a balloon or metal stents. Laser therapy and catheter-directed surgery are other surgical options for IR.

After 24 hours of the procedure, most patients can leave the hospital. However, you will have to stay if you have too much pain. The recovery lasts for 1 to 2 weeks. After that, you can continue your normal routine, but take enough rest.

2.  Angioplasty and Stenting

Angioplasty and stenting is a minimally invasive procedure in which a surgeon uses a catheter-guided balloon to open a narrowed artery. This method deals with the following conditions:

Carotid artery disease: a narrowing of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the brain

Peripheral artery disease:  a narrowing of the blood vessels that transport oxygenated blood into the arms and legs

3. Vein Stripping

 A venous stripping procedure is carried out in the hospital, which involves the surgical removal of the saphenous vein. The saphenous vein is the largest vein in the leg and is a common spot of varicose vein. After a saphenous vein stripping procedure, you can experience:

a. Have bruising and swelling the first 2 weeks

b. Wear compression stockings for the first 2 weeks

c. Start to walk shortly following your procedure and gradually raise your level of activity

d. Avoid strenuous activities

e. Return to work in the first 1 to 2 weeks

f. full recovery in approximately 2 to 4 weeks

4. Endovenous Laser Treatment

The latest option for vascular surgery is endovenous laser treatment or EVLT. It is a minimally invasive operation mainly for the treatment of varicose veins. ELT is guided by ultrasound in an abnormal vein treatment. It uses a minimally injected optical laser and reduces the abnormal vein. ELT gives very little pain and a very fast recovery.

5. Atherectomy

Atherectomy in another minimally invasive procedure where a specialised catheter is inserted into a blocked artery, and the surgeon can cut and remove the plaque within your blood vessels. This procedure can be used to treat peripheral artery disease patients and enables them to have vascular access to dialysis patients.

6. Arteriovenous (AV) Fistula

Your vascular surgeon connects a vein directly to the artery in your forearm during an AV fistula procedure.  This strengthens and widens the veins to makes it easier to access it for patients with kidney failure who need dialysis.

7. Arteriovenous (AV) Graft

AV graft procedure involves surgically connecting an artery to a vein via a synthetic tube (the “graft”).

8.  Open Abdominal Surgery

Open abdominal surgery includes making a small incision to repair an aortic aneurysm or blocking the aorta. Your vascular surgeon will often suture a graft into the aorta to redirect the blood flow to the area of the problem.

9. Thrombectomy

A thrombectomy is a process to remove a vein or artery blood clot. It is done to restore proper blood flow, and prevent lifelong complications such as a blood clotting that may lead to strokes and pulmonary embolism. Angioplasty and stenting can operate in combination with a thrombectomy.

10. Vascular Bypass Surgery

Bypass grafting is an operation that aims to create an alternative blood flow channel, bypassing a damaged vessel.

This procedure can be used for the treatment of patients with:

a. Vertebrobasilar disease: which affects blood flow to the back of the brain

b. Peripheral artery disease: which affects blood flow to the arms and legs

c. Renal vascular disease: which affects blood flow to the kidneys

d. Mesenteric vascular disease:  which affects blood flow to the intestines

11. Open Carotid and Femoral Endarterectomy

Open carotid endarterectomy and femoral endarterectomy involve an operation that removes plaque within an artery that feeds the blood to your brain or legs. This operation is carried out when blockage is moderate to severe.

12. Open Aortic Surgery

The aorta is visualised and controlled through open aortic surgery or open aortic repair. This operation mainly treats aneurysm of chest and abdominal arteries. Although the operation is a little complicated and takes a long time to recover, it is necessary if the risk of rupturing is present. The surgeon opens up your abdomen and puts a clamp on the aorta or underneath aneurysm. The surgeon cuts the aneurysm and takes it away and replaces it with an artificial, man-made aorta.

The part where an incision takes place will have pain and sore. The patient will stay a few days in the hospital to recover. It takes about 4 to 6 weeks or more to recover fully. You can do your normal activity within two to three weeks, but don’t lift heavy items until your recovery is complete.

13. Vascular Surgery in Bangalore

Your veins and arteries supply every living cell in your body with nutrient-rich oxygen. Venous and arterial problems may show symptoms of intermittent pain and muscle fatigue, but often, at least in the early stages, it has no symptoms.

If you think you might have a vascular problem, contact the specialists at Glamyo Health. Our medical counsellors are happy to help. You can visit our website or call one of our medical counsellors to start your treatment journey.

Types of Vascular Diseases with their Possible Treatment Procedures: 

Here we mention all type of vascular diseases with their possible treatment options



Acute limb ischaemia

Balloon embolectomy 


Vascular bypass grafting


Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)

Open aortic surgery

Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR)

Aortic dissection

Open aortic surgery

Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (TEVAR)

Aortoiliac occlusive disease


 vascular bypass



vascular bypass





IV PGI by pass

Carotid stenosis

Carotid endarterectomy

Carotid stenting

Chronic kidney disease

Cimino fistula

Dialysis catheter placement

Chronic venous insufficiency

Endovenous laser treatment

Vein stripping

Connective tissue disease

Genetically triggered Aortic dissections

Deep vein thrombosis

Inferior vena cava filter


Fibromuscular dysplasia



Vascularized lymph node transfer

Lymphaticovenous anastomosis

Suction assisted lipectomy

Low level laser therapy

Median arcuate ligament syndrome

Surgical median arcuate ligament release

Mesenteric ischemia

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease

Surgical revascularization

Angioplasty with/out Stenting 

Vascular bypass



Portal hypertension

Portosystemic shunt


Covered stent

Surgical ligation with or without vascular bypass

Pulmonary embolism

Inferior vena cava filter

Suction thrombectomy

Renovascular hypertension

Surgical revascularization

Stroke and Transient ischemic attack

Carotid endarterectomy

Subclavian steal syndrome

Medical management

Carotid-subclavian bypass

Angioplasty and stenting

Thoracic aortic aneurysm

Hybrid arch debranching

Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Surgical decompression

Varicose veins

Vein stripping


Endovenous Laser Treatment

Ambulatory phlebectomy

Vascular access steal syndrome



Revision using distal inflow

MILLER banding

vascular access complications

open surgery


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