Kidneys or the filtering organs of the body, are bean shaped and present in pairs in the abdominal region. Almost 1 in 10 people  are affected with kidney problems, the majority of them have chronic kidney disease, as stated in the journal of medicine. Kidney eliminates the nitrogenous waste out of the body through urine. Dysfunction of kidneys result in diseases like CKD, glomerulonephritis, urinary tract infections, etc. KFT, CT scan MRI are simple diagnostic tests to detect kidney problems.

Types of Kidney disease

  1. Chronic kidney disease
  2. Fabry disease

  3. Cystinosis

  4. Glomerulonephritis

  5. IgA Nephropathy

  6. Lupus Nephritis

  7. aHUS (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome)

  8. Polycystic Kidney Disease

Kidney functions

  1. Excretion of toxins and waste products
    1. Creatinine 
    2. Urea
    3. uric acid
    4. Regulate serum osmolarity
    5. Extracellular fluid volume maintenance
    6. electrolyte concentrations 
    7. Production of hormones (erythropoietin, renin and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D). 
  2. Filtering the blood

Symptoms

  1. Stomach pain
  2. Abdominal swelling
  3. Problem in peeing
  4. Nausea and vomiting
  5. Loss of appetite
  6. Weakness and fatigue
  7. Sleep discomforts
  8. Muscle cramps
  9. Decreased mental health

Cause of kidney diseases

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Glomerulonephritis 
  • Interstitial nephritis 
  • PKD- Polycystic kidney disease
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Urinary tract obstructions
  • kidney stones 
  • Recurrent infections affecting kidneys (pyelonephritis)
  • Vesicoureteral reflux
  • Autoimmunity-issues
  • Genetic problems
  • Cancerous or tumor growth in kidney

Diagnosis

  • Physical examination
  • MRI scan
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound
  • KFT

Role of Kidney in the human body

  1. 1. Excretion of toxins and waste products
    1. A. Creatinine 
    2. B. Urea
    3. C. uric acid
    4.  
  2. 2. Filtering the blood
  3. 3. Regulate serum osmolarity
  4. 4. Extracellular fluid volume maintenance
  5. 5. Electrolyte concentrations 
  6. 6. Production of hormones (erythropoietin, renin and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D). 
  7.  

Types of kidney disease

  1. 1. Chronic kidney disease
  2. 2. Fabry disease

  3. 3. Cystinosis

  4. 4. Glomerulonephritis

  5. 5. IgA Nephropathy

  6. 6. Lupus Nephritis

  7. 7. aHUS (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome)

  8. 8. Polycystic Kidney Disease

  9. 9. Rare diseases

  10.  

Some rare diseases can lead to kidney failures also. 

Symptoms of kidney diseases

People with kidney problems might show some or all of the following kidney symptoms. People can also self diagnose by checking out the following signs in their body and must go to a doctor for further consultation and treatment. 

  1. 1. Stomach pain
  2. 2. Abdominal swelling
  3. 3. Problem in peeing
  4. 4. Blood in pee
  5. 5. Nausea and vomiting
  6. 6. Loss of appetite
  7. 7. Weakness and fatigue
  8. 8. Sleep discomforts
  9. 9. Muscle cramps
  10. 10. Decreased mental health
  11.  

Cause of Kidney Diseases

Kidney problems may arise due to the following causes,

  • 1. High blood pressure
  • 2. Diabetes
  • 3. Glomerulonephritis 
  • 4. Interstitial nephritis 
  • 5. PKD- Polycystic kidney disease
  • 6. Enlarged prostate
  • 7. Urinary tract obstructions
  • 8. Kidney stones 
  • 9. Recurrent infections affecting kidneys (pyelonephritis)
  • 10. Vesicoureteral reflux
  • 11. Autoimmunity-issues
  • 12. Genetic problems
  • 13. Cancerous or tumour growth in kidney
  •  

Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1. What is CKD?

CKD or chronic kidney disease is the most common kidney disease affecting 1 in 10 people worldwide. Most common symptoms of CKD include blood in urine and swollen ankles. 

Q.2. What are the roles of kidneys?

The function of kidney involve the following;

  1. 1. Excretion of toxins and waste products
    1. A. Creatinine 
    2. B. Urea
    3. C. Uric acid
    4.  
  2. 2. Filtering the blood
  3. 3. Regulate serum osmolarity
  4. 4. Extracellular fluid volume maintenance
  5. 5. Electrolyte concentrations 
  6. 6. Production of hormones (erythropoietin, renin and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D). 
  7.  

Q.3. What are the causes of kidney problems?

Kidney problems can arise due to various reasons, some of which are as follows;

  • 1. High blood pressure
  • 2. Diabetes
  • 3. Glomerulonephritis 
  • 4. Interstitial nephritis 
  • 5. Polycystic kidney disease
  • 6. Obstruction in urinary tract
  • 7. Enlarged prostate
  • 8. Vesicoureteral reflux
  • 9. Recurrent kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis 
  •  

Q.4. What are the diagnostic methods to detect kidney problems?

Kidney problems can be diagnosed by various imaging tests and blood and urine tests. Your doctor might recommend the following checkups to assess the kidney functioning.

  1. 1. Physical examination
  2. 2. MRI scan
  3. 3. CT scan
  4. 4. Ultrasound
  5. 5. KFT
  6.  

Q.5. What is glomerulonephritis?

One of the dysfunctioning of Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli, which is the filtering unit of kidneys.

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