The cornea is an important part of the human eye. It is inseparable from the eyes and promises to be a shield for the eyes to function properly and especially works to let the light enter the eyes. To understand the human eye, and its relationship to the other parts of the body and the outer world, knowing about the Layers in cornea in detail may help you in simplifying at least a layer of it.

What is Cornea

In simplest terms, a cornea is one of the significant parts of our eyes, which is transparent, and covers the pupil and iris part of the eyes, providing the light to pass inside. This tissue is made up of multiple layers that function to protect the eyes from dust, infections, or any other injuries. It acts as a protection door that doesn’t let any harm to entry or infect the eyes easily. It is of strong build and equally sensitive.

What are the layers of the cornea?

If we see the cornea layer by layer, we will understand why it is so thick and strongly built. Every layer has its significance and reason for existence. The corneal layers are combined to prepare a walk of protection. These layers are as follows.

Epithelium layer

This can be simply called the layer at the surface of the cells. Its basic function is to provide smoothness to the surface and barrier.

Bowman’s layer

Nest, this layer comes straight after the epithelium layer. This layer has toughness and strength and protects the eyes from getting swollen.

Stroma layer

The scar can be the cause of injuries at this stage. It is formed from keratocytes in support and well-arranged collagen fibres.

Descemet’s Layer To

Well maintain the health of endothelial cells this layer is significant. It is an innermost layer that falls under the basement membrane of the cornea.

The Endothelium

Its role is an essential requirement. It works as a pump that protects the cornea from getting extra wet.

What are common corneal disorders?

Most corneal conditions or disorders create a lot of problems while the proper functioning of the cornea and its multiple layers. The cornea just like other parts affected has some side effects which are given in the following list.

Dryness in the Eyes

This can occur if the eyes are not receiving enough wet tears to function. Anything excess or anything extra, both are equally harmful to the health.


often in the pollen give irritation to the eyes and become the cause of the most common pink eye allergic condition. This redness, watery eyes or itchiness can become a trouble.

Corneal dystrophies

Often this illness goes back to the family history and is linked there. It results in a blurry or cloudy vision which is due to a certain amount of material build-up in the area.


Though, initially, the small injuries can be healed without any treatment, that is, on their own. But, any major injury in the cornea can result in scars or scratches.


This is known for creating redness or making the cornea swollen. Thus, infections due to wearing contact lenses most commonly result in this injury.

What are the Symptoms of Corneal Conditions?

Whenever the eyes face any kind of discomfort, the first step should be to understand or the doctor will look for the following symptoms.

Blurriness in the eyes

when your eyes start to face some blurry vision, one of the reasons can be that the cornea is affected.

Mild to immense pain

In the situation when cornea in the eyes is at risk, one can face physical pain in the eyes and surrounding area. The pain can be low or high.

Sensitivity to light

In corneal conditions, the rays of the light sensitivity create difficulty seeing clearly and this calls for an urgent need to correct the issue through medical treatment.

Redness in the eye

As much as other factors affect it, the itchiness, pain, swelling and cloudy vision can create complications. These complications initially are redness in the eye or scars.

Forming of scar

Corneal condition can be the affected result of scratching or scars forming in the eyes.

Common Cornea Problems

Though cornea is a strongly formed, multiple-layered structure part of every human body. It resides in the eye ensuring to provide protection and let the light come inside. But, it too being a sensitive part can lead to getting affected due to some common eye or eyesight problems.

Some of the common corneal problems are blurry vision, eyes getting dried away, swollen eyes or surrounding area, sensitivity to light and immense pain. These can become severe and affect deeply. Thus, one must visit a doctor regularly to avoid such damage or infections.

What Conditions Can Cause Damage?

There are some risky situations or circumstances that can lead to the cause of cornea damage. These can be due to one or the other injuries and are listed below.

Ultraviolet injury

Firstly, Cornea can be damaged severely due to the direct effect of harmful rays getting straight into the eyes and reaching the cornea. 

Contact lens complications

Often, the cornea can be damaged due to wearing contact lenses too. These artificial lenses are beneficial but at the same time, can cause damage.

Abrasion injury

Injuries are the most severe reason which happen unpredictably and can affect the eyes partially or whole.

Chemical reaction injuries

When the eyes are directly affected due to some harmful chemical reaction, it creates complications for a lifetime.

Corneal treatment – what are the options?

The options available for the corneal treatment are distinguished based on how deep the scratch is. Firstly, if the scratch is still at the initial level, the doctor will provide the patient with home precautions, ointments, eyedrops, medications and antibiotics for healing on its own.

If in a few days, the result isn’t positive and it doesn’t improve or heal completely, the patient will be asked to undergo scratched cornea abrasion treatment. Here, the patient is curable minor conditions will be provided with a bandage covering till it heals completely. In rest, severe conditions, the patient will have to show it to the ophthalmologist. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Where is the cornea?

A cornea is the crystal clear part of every human eye. It is in the outermost layer of the eyes and it functions as a protective covering for the eyes.

What happens if the cornea is damaged?

If the cornea is damaged due to one or the other unavoidable reasons, its result, that is, the discolouration of the images or scars (if any) can create difficulty in looking through clear vision. Possibly, this damage can create a blockage for light to enter the eye.

What protects the cornea?

The cornea is a part that itself acts as a  shield to the eyes. It too gets protection from a skin-like layer called Epithelium. This layer of skin effectively works to protect the cornea from bacteria, dust and debris.

Also, the cornea got ample protection from Stroma, the dome-like outer layer in the eyes. This part is efficient in protecting the cornea because of providing 90% of the thickness of the cornea.

Can cornea cause blindness?

Cornea damages, in most cases worldwide, the result in it being the major cause of blindness is now becoming common but more specifically in not so-developed countries. Similarly, the situation of corneal scarring or clouding of the cornea might blur the vision.

Can cornea repair itself?

Yes, in minor cases one’s cornea can experience repairing itself. If the scratch or the scar is at an initial stage, some of our healthy cells will catch up with it and it will be healed. But, in cases where the injury is deep-rooted, proper medical consultation and treatment need to be undergone.

What is cornea made of?

The cornea is made up of cellular compounds and acellular compounds. Are the two most profound compounds collected together to form the layer of the cornea? Both have some significant distinctions.

In the cellular ones, we will find keratocytes, epithelial cells and endothelial cells present. Whereas in acellular, cells present are different, it has glycosaminoglycans and collagen.

How long does a cornea take to heal?

Initially, the cornea can take up to 2 to 3 days to heal completely, in this circumstance, the abrasion is less covered. Cornea covered with half the surface covered with larger abrasion needs more time to properly heal.

What diseases affect the cornea?

Corneal diseases are a huge collection of conditions affecting specifically cornea and its surrounding area. Keratoconus is known to be one of the most commonly affecting diseases of all.

Can dry eyes damage cornea?

Immense dryness in the eyes if kept untreated, can be the reason that gives birth to various eye problems. Some of the common eye problems can be corneal ulcers, abrasion of the corneal surface area that can lead to vision loss, inflammation of the eyes and more associated ailments.

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