Knee replacement is the surgical method for the removal of a damaged knee or joint, which causes severe pain or ache. Due to this, movement becomes so difficult. Knee replacement is also known as arthroplasty. This is the method of restoration of damaged joints in knees or other bones, as in osteoarthritis. Knee Replacement Surgery.
What is Knee Replacemment Surgery?
Knee replacement surgery or medically called arthroplasty is the procedure of recovery of damaged cartilages or cushions in the joints due to aging, osteoporosis, etc. Damaged parts are replaced by artificially made joints called a prosthesis, which is usually made of metals or alloy. After knee replacement surgery, joints get recovered and ease the movement as well. It gives relief from pain that happens due to the damaged areas in bones.
Types of Knee Replacement Surgery
There are two major types of knee replacement surgery.
- 1. Total Knee Replacement Surgery
- 2. Partial Knee Replacement Surgery
Total Knee Replacement Surgery
Total knee replacement surgery is the procedure that involves covering the under the zone of the knee i.e patella with artificial material like a plastic dome. This is a complicated procedure where the perseverance of the original patella is a priority for the doctors during surgery. People with high deformities in bones, and joints with severe pain have more chances to undergo this surgery. Metal or alloy-based support is also used in total knee replacement surgery.
Partial Knee Replacement Surgery
Partial knee replacement surgery is also known as unicompartmental knee surgery. This surgery is used when arthritis has damaged only one side of the knee or a portion. Such surgeries are done on specific damaged zones of the knee. In this type of knee replacement surgery, there are very low chances of complications and it mostly recovers quickly and heals wounds faster. It involves fewer chances in the knee’s basic pattern, but on the other hand, is more complicated than the total knee replacement as it can result in further revision of the knee in the future.
Causes of Knee Replacement Surgery are as follows:-
- 1. Osteoarthritis – Osteoarthritis, is an issue in the knee joints, due to damage in it. This results in severe pain, and difficulty in moving and walking. Such problems vary from individual to individual at different levels. Symptoms such as swelling around the affected area, crackling sound, difficulty in movement, etc.
- 2. Bone deformation -Bone deformation is the change in the shape, size, and alignment of bones. This can be of two types based on the pattern of inheritance, i.e. congenital and acquired. Bone can be deformed due to various factors such as low calcium levels, unhealthy diet, etc.
- 2. Loss of cartilage-The loss of cartilage can be due to wear and tear of the joint bones. Diseases such as osteoarthritis, major injury, or damage to joints are also the reasons for the loss of cartilage.
- 3. Problems such as gout-Gout are bone disease that occurs mostly at the joints, where two bones meet. It results in problems such as swelling and pain. Major causes for having gout are dysfunctional kidneys resulting in the accumulation of uric acid in the body, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure fluctuation, etc.
- 4. Rheumatoid, haemophilia-Rheumatoid arthritis is one type of autoimmune disease, which results in inflammation of the affected area. Autoimmune disease is the type of disease that attacks the healthy cells of the body and causes inflammation majorly around the joints of bones. Haemophilia also causes the problem of joint.
Benefits of Knee Replacement Surgery
- 1. Reduces pain – The superior priority is the removal of pain for the doctors. Knee replacement surgery helps in the reduction of severe pain and it gives one freedom to move freely without any constraint. Bones function properly after the surgery and there are fewer chances of medical complications.
- 2. The function of bones improved- After the knee replacement surgery, the bones become able to move freely.
- 3. Better success rate – The knee replacement surgery has a success rate of 90%-95%, as seen in the patients.
Disadvantages of Knee Replacement Surgery
- HIGH PRICE OF KNEE REPLACEMENT SURGERY
In India, the average cost for knee replacement surgery is approximately between Rs 1,50,000 – Rs 4,00,000. However, this varies from place to place depending on the factors such as doctor’s consultation fees, hospitalization, diagnosis, etc.
- REVISION SURGERY – After the surgery, many times medical complications may arise.
- INFECTION- Knee replacement surgery involves the resurfacing of the affected area of the knees by plastic or metal structures. Due to surgery, chances of infections arise. However, proper treatment and regular dressing can help to prevent infection.
- ALLERGY – Allergy is another disadvantage of this knee replacement surgery. But this can be prevented by observation by doctors.
- THROMBOSIS – DVT or deep vein thrombosis is the blockage of the vein due to a blood clot. This also increases the chances of a heart attack.
- LOOSENING OF ARTIFICIAL JOINTS – Filling of the artificial material, of plastic and metal in place of damaged bones, sometimes creates problems of loosening of such joints in the future.
- VARIATION IN THE LENGTH OF THE LEGS – Due to surgery, recovered bone’s size changes. And this alteration further brings changes in the length of legs.
- LIGAMENT DAMAGE- knee replacement surgery could also create damage to the tendon and ligaments. The ligament is a type of connective tissue that connects bone to bone. While the tendon connects bone to muscle.
- DELAY IN WOUND HEALING – The wound takes time to heal and hence creates other problems like infection.
- ACCUMULATION OF METAL IONS IN BODY- As metal or alloy fittings are used in knee replacement surgery, which releases metal ions in the body. This results in symptoms like nausea, chills, weakness, etc.
Activities to Avoid After Knee Replacement Surgery
- 1. Avoid activities that lead to high falling risk.
- 2. Avoid lighting weight
- 3. Minimal stress on the affected area.
- 4. Avoid activities like running and jumping
- 5. Avoid fast-paced sports.
Precautions after Knee Replacement Surgery
Immediately after surgery exercises that could be performed are:-
- 1. Simple motion and movement of affected areas by avoiding heavy stress. This helps in attaining the mobility of the knee.
- 2. Straightening knee activity could be done with a support system.
- 3. Knee bends
- 4. Exercise after three months from surgery is swimming, lifting light weight, dancing, etc.
- 5. After Six months of surgery patients find themselves in a better position and can perform activities like dancing, heavy weight lifting, etc. But consulting a doctor is important before doing strenuous exercise.
What is total knee replacement surgery?
Knee replacement surgery could be broadly classified into two categories, viz total knee replacement surgery and partial knee replacement surgery. The basic difference between total knee replacement surgery and partial knee replacement surgery is the area of the knee treated. In partial knee replacement surgery, only a specific area is treated. The average price for the surgery is approximately 1.5 lakh to 4.0 lakh.
KNEE REPLACEMENT SURGERY TIME – Knee replacement surgery involves diagnosis, surgery, post consultation, hospitalization, and recovery which takes five months to six months. But this period is a rough estimation and may vary.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the best age to have knee replacement surgery?
Knee replacement surgery, has a 90% chance of success. Hence, any person with an average age of 65 years can undergo the surgery. However, consultation with a well-experienced doctor is most important during such surgeries.
How painful is a total knee replacement surgery?
Knee replacement surgery is a painful procedure, but medicines can lower it during surgery. After the surgery, pain mostly lasts for about five to six months.
How to shower after knee replacement surgery?
One can bathe by covering the affected area with some waterproof material or plastic bags to avoid contact of water with wounds. Water can make the incision wet and the chances of infection also increase.
What happens in the first week after the knee replacement surgery?
After knee replacement surgery, doctors advise the patients to avoid any kind of weight lifting, strenuous exercise, or to avoid sports as bones recover during such times. Light exercise to gain strength and mobility could be done.
What are the signs of needing a knee replacement?
Following are the reasons that suggest knee replacement surgery:-
- 1. Excessive pain
- 2. Knee deformity
- 3. Swelling in the knee
- 4. Problem in Movement
- 5. Crackling sound from the knee
Is knee replacement surgery safe?
The overall success rate of knee replacement is approximately 90% – 95%. This procedure is considered safe as it has a lower level of medical complications. However, factors like better treatment by an experienced doctors, diagnosis, surgery, post consultation are also responsible for a success rate of knee replacement surgery
You May Also Like