Kidney stones are hardened deposits of minerals and salts forming within kidneys. Kidney stones can affect any part of the urinary system, from kidney to bladder. Often when the urine is concentrated, stones form, which allow minerals to crystallise and stick together. It can be painful to pass kidney stones from your urinary tract, however stones typically do not cause permanent harm if it is diagnosed early. You may just require pain medication and drinking plenty of water to pass the kidney stone depending on your condition. In some cases, if stones are stuck in the urinary tract, infected, or cause complications, surgery may be necessary.
If you have an increasing chance of developing kidney stones, your doctor may suggest preventative treatments to minimize your risk of recurring kidney stones.
Causes of Kidney Stones
Drinking too little water, too much or too little exercise, obesity, weight loss surgery, or eating meals with too much salt or sugar might lead to the potential causes of kidney stones. Some people may get it by infections and family history. Too often fructose is related to the risks of a kidney stone.
A kidney stone will normally not produce symptoms until it moves around or into your ureters (the tubes that link the kidneys to your bladder). It can block the urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be quite painful. Then you may experience following symptoms:
1. Pain which extends to the lower abdomen and the groin
2. Sharp and severe pain both in the back and side of the ribs
3. Pain or burning sensation while urinating
4. Pain that varies in waves and intensity
Other signs and symptoms may include:
1. Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
2. Pink, red or brown urine
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. A persistent need to urinate, or urinating in small amounts more than often
5. blood in the urine
6. in case of infection experiencing fever and chills
The pain caused by a kidney stone may change, for example, when the stone passes through the urinary tract to a different site or increases in severity.
There are Four Main Types of Stones:
Four types of stones are present. Studying the stone can contribute to understanding on how to reduce risk of other stones.
1. Calcium Oxalate: The most frequent form of kidney stone produced by combining calcium with urine oxalate. Inadequate intake of calcium and hydration or other problems can lead to their formation.
2. Uric Acid: This type of kidney stone is another frequent type. The increased intake of purine leads to greater monosodium urate production that may create stones in the kidneys. These types of stones run in families.
3. Struvite: These stones are less prevalent and produced by upper urinary tract infections.
4. Cystine: The stones are rare and run in families.
The urologist will propose testing to confirm the diagnosis of kidney stones after investigating your symptoms, medical history and completed examinations. The tests may contain:
1. A computerised tomography (CT) scan
3. Ultrasound scan
4. Intravenous urogram (IVU) or intravenous pyelogram (IVP):
Kidney Stones Treatment
In children and adults, the treatment of kidney stones is similar. A lot of water might be requested to drink. Doctors try to let the stone go without surgery. You can also receive medicines to reduce the acidity of your urine. However, when it is too large, or if urine is blocked, or if there is an indication of infection, surgery will remove it.
The treatments and procedures for the management of kidney stones are as follows:
You may be prescribed a special diet by your doctor. And your water intake should be increased.
A medication that can dissolve specific types of stones may be prescribed by your doctor.
Type of kidney stone
Possible medicines prescribed by your doctor
potassium citrate: Used to increase urine pH and citrate levels, frequently known as water pills
Uric Acid Stones
Allopurinol: for treating excessive levels of uric acid
Antibiotic: to prevent infection
mercaptopropionyl glycine: is for heart problems
potassium citrate: is for making the urine less acidic
Additional medications are often recommended to treat kidney stone symptoms, including:
1. antibiotics to manage any infection
2. muscles relaxants that help the stones to pass
3. pain medicines
4. other medicines to control the underlying disease that cause kidney-stone.
Discuss your health history with a health care provider before you take medications for kidney stone. There are minor to significant adverse effects for certain kidney stone medications. The longer you take the medicine and the greater the dose, the more side effects arise. Discuss any side effects with healthcare professionals when you receive kidney stone medication.
Kidney Stone Removal Surgeries:
A urologist can remove or break the kidney stone into tiny pieces with the following procedures :
1. Shock Wave Lithotripsy. The doctor may employ shock wave-lithotripsy to break the renal stone in tiny parts. Then smaller parts of your renal stone pass by your urine tract. During this outpatient surgery, a doctor can provide anaesthetic.
2. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy. To identify and take off the kidney stone, the doctor utilizes a small viewing instrument called a nephroscope. A tiny cut made in your back puts the instrument right into your kidney. The doctor may also use a laser to break the kidney stones in smaller pieces for bigger kidney stones. In a hospital with anaesthesia, the doctor conducts nephrolithotomy percutaneous
. Some days after the surgery, you may need to stay in the hospital.
After these surgeries, the urologist might occasionally place a small flexible tube in your urinary tract, known as a ureteral stent, to aid flow of urine or stone.
The medical practitioner may additionally ask you to collect your urine 24 hours after passage or removal of the kidney stone. Then your medical practitioners can measure your daily amount of urine together with your urine’s mineral levels. If you do not generate enough urine or have a problem with excessive minerals, you are most prone to form stones.
3. Ureteroscopy: Your doctor may use a tool called a ureteroscope to remove a stone when it’s stuck in the ureter or bladder. In the urethra a tiny wire linked to the camera is inserted into the bladder. The doctor then breaks and removes the stone by a small cage. The stone is subsequently submitted to the laboratory for analysis.
Long Term Consequences of Kidney Stones
The chance of getting chronic kidney disease increases with kidney stones. You are at higher risk of having another stone if you have one stone. Those who have formed one stone have a probability of developing another around 50 percent within 5-7 years.
Reducing Kidney Stone Risk
Enough liquid will enable your pee to keep waste items less concentrated. Darker pee is much more concentrated, therefore if you are well-hydrated, your urine should be light yellow. More than 12 glasses of water a day should be drunk by most people. Water is better than soda, coffee and sports drinks. Sugar and corn syrup with high fructose should be restricted to small amounts.
Eat extra fruit and vegetables that reduce the acidity of the urine. Animal protein creates more acidic urine that can therefore raise the risk of kidney stones.
Excess salt in your diet should be reduced.
If you are overweight, and you want to try to achieve normal weight. But, the risk of stone formation can increase with high protein weight reduction regimens, which contain large amounts of animal protein as well as crash diets. Sufficient protein is required, but it must be part of a balance of diet. Seek guidance from a trained dietitian before taking a diet to minimise the risk of kidney stones.
The risk of kidney stones is higher for those with the lowest dietary intake of calcium. A stone can be made from protein, salt, and potassium waste products.
Tell your doctor or a qualified dietitian if you have a stone, or you believe you might be more at risk for a stone in your kidney.