What is a hysterectomy?
The surgical operation involves the removal of some or the entire uterus.
Reasons for opting for Hysterectomy
Some of the reasons for choosing to undergo hysterectomy
Fibroids in the uterus are the noncancerous growth of the uterus, majorly in women’s uterus during pregnancy ( or childbearing years). Fibroids cause pain and bleeding from the uterus.
Uterine prolapse is the stretching or weakening pelvic floor muscles and connecting ligaments that cannot adequately support the uterus. Weakened support cause sliding of the uterus abnormally from its position.
The abnormal growth of the uterus lining called endometrium leads to cancer development. It can go to the cervix and ovaries, causing cancer of the cervix and ovaries along with uterine cancer.
Tissues of the endometrial lining grow out of the uterus, causing pain and damage.
Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Bleeding in between the periods can be due to infection, medication, fibroids, and endometriosis.
Chronic pelvic pain
Pain below the belly button to the hip bones and lasting for almost six months or more is chronic pain.
Types of Hysterectomy
The diagnosis made by the doctor decides the extent of the Hysterectomy. It depends on the patient’s medical condition that prompts a surgeon to choose the type of Hysterectomy. The different types involve either removing all or some portion of the uterus.
Supracervical Hysterectomy (or subtotal Hysterectomy)
The type of Surgery involves removing just the upper portion of the uterus. This type of Surgery keeps the cervix in its natural position.
The type of Surgery that involves the removal of the entire uterus along with the cervix.
The type of Surgery involves the removal of the entire uterus, the cervix, tissues on the sides or lining of the uterus, and the top portion of the vagina. This type of Hysterectomy is only recommended by surgeons when diagnosing a cancer patient.
The type of Surgery that involves the removal of ovaries (containing female germs cells)
The type of Surgery that involves the removal of fallopian tubes of women.
The complete removal of the fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries and uterus is called Hysterectomy (also called bilateral salpingectomy-oophorectomy).
Risks of Hysterectomy
After undergoing the removal procedure of some or entire uterus (Hysterectomy), no complications or serious problems arise. But the fact that Hysterectomy is one of the significant surgeries cannot be neglected. Hence this procedure to has some risks. Some of the complications include:
A sudden and intense urge to urinate ( may be due to an overactive bladder) is followed by urine leakage by accident (an involuntary urine loss).
a portion of the vagina getting displaced from its position
Abnormal connection between urinary bladder or rectum and vagina
Other uncommon risks include
- 1. Wound infections
- 2. Blood clots
- 3. Hemorrhage
- 4. Injury to other organs in the vicinity
What to Expect After Hysterectomy?
Some of the expected outcomes after hysterectomy:
- 1. After the Surgery wherein ovaries are also removed, there won’t be menstrual flow anymore.
- 2. In most cases, abstaining from sexual intercourse is advised
- 3. Patients should not lift heavier objects for at least six weeks after the surgical procedure (Hysterectomy)
- 4. Pelvic pain and heavy periods are some of the significant problems that are cured after a Hysterectomy.
Surgical Techniques for Hysterectomy
There are different approaches that surgeons use for Hysterectomy. Depending on the number of factors like
- 1. Surgeon’s experience
- 2. Medical conditions that require Hysterectomy
- 3. Patient’s full health.
The kind of Hysterectomy determine
- 1. Healing time
- 2. Kind of scar
There are two different approaches for Hysterectomy
- 1. Traditional or open Surgery
- 2. Surgery with a minimally invasive procedure (MIP)
Open type of Surgery (traditional Hysterectomy)
The most common type of traditional procedure for Hysterectomy is open Surgery which involves abdominal incisions and accounts for over 54% of cases. In this type of Surgery (that is, abdominal Hysterectomy), the surgeon has to make a bigger incision measuring almost 5- to 7-inches. The incision can be made either in the up-down or side-to-side direction in the belly. The direction of either up-and-down or side-to-side, across the belly. Eventually, the uterus is removed through the incision made.
The person who has undergone the Hysterectomy must spend at least 2-3 days in hospital care. It is normal to have a scar where an incision is made for uterus removal (Hysterectomy).
MIP Hysterectomy (Minimally Invasive Procedure for Hysterectomy)
Several approaches for MIP hysterectomy are:
Vaginal Hysterectomy: In this type of Surgery, a cut is made in the vagina by the surgeons to remove the uterus from the incision. The incision is eventually closed and leaves no scar.
Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: In this type of Surgery, a laparoscope is used for the Surgery. The laparoscope is a tube that contains a lighted camera inserted through minute cuts made in the abdomen.
A single site or single incision laparoscopic procedure involves a small incision or cut in the belly. The surgical procedure is performed (the Hysterectomy) by viewing the body’s anatomy from the inside on a video screen while operating.
Laparoscopic Hysterectomy assisted by robot: This surgical procedure type is almost like a laparoscopic hysterectomy procedure, wherein the surgeon has assistance from a sophisticated system of artificial intelligence ( robotic surgical tools) handled from outside the patient’s body. Such advanced technology helps surgeons to visualize the ongoing Hysterectomy as a three-dimensional view.
Comparison of two types of hysterectomy procedures: MIP Hysterectomy and Abdominal Hysterectomy
The MIP (minimally invasive procedure) approach for the abdominal Hysterectomy for removing the uterus is comparatively beneficial to the traditional open surgery procedure. Various benefits make surgeons and patients opt for the MIP procedure.
MIP followed by faster recovery
Comparatively, more time is required for recovery
Hospital stay is less.
More days are required for the hospital stay.
Comparatively more painful
Lower chances of infection
Higher chances of infection
MIP costs are considerably lower (Robotic procedures, however, can be much more expensive)
The overall cost of open surgery is more than the MIP procedure.
Day to day activitities can be resumed in 2-3 weeks
Normal activity resume requires 4-6 weeks
Side effects of Hysterectomy
Some of the side effects women face after hysterectomy:
- 1. Fever
- 2. Chills
- 3. Heavy bleeding
- 4. Unusual vaginal discharge
- 5. Severe pain
- 6. Redness or discharge from incisions
- 7. Problems in urinating
- 8. Abnormal bowel movements
- 9. Breathlessness
- 10. Chest pain
If some of these symptoms persist for longer, it is advised to consult an expert to prevent further complications. Glamyo health provides a free consultation with female expert gynecologists. They also ensure privacy and keep personal details safer. You can contact us anytime as the experts are available for consultation 24 hours. They also have advanced technology at a reasonable cost and have zero-cost EMI options available for surgeries.
How commonly women undergo hysterectomy in India?
In India, Hysterectomy is a standard procedure. Almost 3-4% of women are estimated to have the operation done. The actual percentage is higher than the estimations.
What preparations should be made before hysterectomy?
Few important preparations are:
- 1. Gather a lot of information on the types of procedures
- 2. Try to lose weight, in case you are obese or overweight
- 3. Cut down if you are habitual of smoking or stop smoking
- 4. Discuss all the medication prescribed with the surgeon
- 5. Try to have normal medical conditions (like sugar levels and blood pressure levels)
- 6. Plan the time so that you get enough time after surgery for recovery.
What can be expected during the surgery or hysterectomy?
It depends on the severity of the medical condition a patient is facing. Overall, Hysterectomy means uterus removal or cervix and other parts of the reproductive system like fallopian tubes, ovaries, and vagina removal along with the uterus.
How many hours does hysterectomy procedure need?
The time of the surgical procedure depends on the type of Hysterectomy done. Usually, it lasts for 1-3 hours.
Common side effects after hysterectomy
- 1. Blood loss
- 2. Need for blood transfusion.
- 3. Damage to surrounding body parts or nerves (like the bladder and urethra)
- 4. Blood clots
- 5. Infection.
- 6. Side effects of general anesthesia given.
What are the expected medical conditions after hysterectomy?
Some vaginal bleeding and unusual discharge are usually expected after a Hysterectomy. But the discharge and bleeding are for a particular period (lasting up to 5-6 weeks after surgery).
Advantages of hysterectomy
- 1. Improved quality of life
- 2. Medical issues like fibroids, endometriosis, adenomyosis, or abnormal periods get resolved.
- 3. Prevent the risk of uterine cancer
Complications of Hysterectomy
- 1. Hemorrhage
- 2. Bowel injury
- 3. Bladder injury
- 4. Pulmonary embolism
- 5. Reactivity to anesthesia
- 6. Wound dehiscence
- 7. Hematoma
What is the recovery time after hysterectomy?
Recovery time is less for MIP (Minimally Invasive Procedure) for Hysterectomy while comparatively more for traditional open surgery.
How is the feeling after a hysterectomy?
Patients after Hysterectomy may experience minor pain and tiredness.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is sex different after a hysterectomy?
According to surveys taken from the women who underwent Hysterectomy, the surgical procedure has improved women’s sex life in most cases, and some reported having the same feeling afterward. It is advised to the patients that they should restrict themselves for a few days to a few weeks after the surgical procedure or hysterectomy (uterus removal surgery). Eventually, there is a pause in sex life after a Hysterectomy.
What can you do to avoid a hysterectomy?
Doctors may recommend specific alternatives to Hysterectomy for patients with any condition related to the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and cervix. Following procedures can opt-in for different medical conditions:
- 1. Polypectomy – a minimal surgical procedure for removing a polyp (non-cancerous tumor or growth)
- 2. Myomectomy – a surgical procedure for removing non-cancerous growths or fibroids in the uterus
- 3. Endometrial ablation – For treating heavy bleeding (menstrual flow or periods) that cause minimal invasion and scarring
Can you have a period after a hysterectomy?
After undergoing a Hysterectomy, women no longer get periods and cannot have children. The vaginal bleeding after the Hysterectomy is normal because of sutures or stitches.
Is there any alteration on personality after hysterectomy?
Women often feel anxious before and after the hysterectomy procedure. According to a cohort survey, mental health gets disturbed after Hysterectomy. Women feel more depressed and have insomnia.
Is Hysterectomy appropriate for adenomyosis?
In case a patient is experiencing intense pain and other treatments are either not working or cannot be recommended, the doctor considers Hysterectomy the best procedure for adenomyosis.
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