Our eyes might be small but it provides people vision which is considered as the major sense of the human body. Vision plays a very vital role as about 80% of what we see comes through the sense of vision. People must be aware of their senses and how it works:
How Vision Works
The eye works for providing vision or sight. Through the pupil, light enters the eye and thus vision occurs. The inner structure of the eye works together which helps in producing an image that your brain can understand. Furthermore, for producing a clear image, your eyes complete the following process:
First – Through the cornea, light enters the eye
When you see an object then the light that is reflected off of any object enters the eye with the help of the cornea (the clear front layer of the eye). The cornea bends light before it enters or passes through the aqueous humour, which is a watery liquid that fills or occupies the space behind the cornea.
Second – The pupil changes or adjusts in response to the light
The light always continues to pass through the black opening which is in the centre of the iris and this is known as the pupil. The colourful part of the eyes is called an iris which provides its green, hazel, blue, dark, or brown appearance or colour. Then the pupil automatically changes to bigger or smaller as per the intensity of light.
Most importantly, the iris is made up of muscles that contract and expand for controlling the pupils and help in adjusting its size. In simple terms, when you see your pupil changing its size, it’s actually the iris that is managing the opening of the pupil to respond to the light entering the eye.
Third – the lens focuses the light onto the retina
The light enters with the help of a pupil to the lens of the eye. The lens helps in adjusting its shape to focus and bend the light for a second, thus it ensures that you are able to see a clear image of the object you are looking at.
Moreover, when you see any object or thing then at this point the light has to bend twice because it passes from the cornea to the lens and then through the lens to the retina. This double bending is for flipping the image upside down.
Fourth – the light is focused on the retina
After this, the light passes through the lens to behind the eye which is filled with a gelatinous and clear substance which is known as vitreous until it reaches the retina. Then, the light is focused throughout the retina which consists of nerves known as photoreceptors.
Photoreceptors are made of cones and rods and which are responsible for changing the light rays to electrical impulses. When the light is being focused throughout the retina then the light enters the eye which is focused onto the focal point in the retina, called the macula.
Fifth – the optic nerve transforms visual information into the brain
The retinal nerves collect the entire electrical impulses that pass through the optic nerve at the back of the eyes up to the occipital lobe behind the back of the brain.
What are the parts of the eye?
Cornea – the clear front window of the eye or dome-like structure which covers the front part of the eye. This is responsible for bending the light as it enters the eye.
Iris – Iris is the colourful part of the eye that is made up of muscles and controls the pupil. With the help of the iris, the pupil expands in bright light and contracts in low light.
Pupil – the dark opening at the centre of the eye which closes and opens as per the intensity of the light.
Lens – the lens is located just behind the pupil, this has a transparent structure that helps in focusing light onto the retina.
Sclera – the white part of the eye which has surrounded the iris. This white structure is made up of fibrous tissue which helps in protecting the inner structure of the eye.
The ciliary body – is located behind the iris, this part of the eye consists of a muscle that helps to focus the lens.
Retina – the back of the eye’s light-sensitive membrane, which converts light signals into electrical impulses that are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
Vitreous humour – this is the clear jelly-like substance that fills the central cavity of the eye.
Optic nerve – a bunch of nerve fibres that consists of more than a million nerve cells. The optic nerve is located at the back of the eye and is majorly responsible for carrying visual information to the brain from the retina.
Macula – the centre part of the retina is responsible for central vision and vision for fine details.
Common Signs or Symptoms of Eye Conditions
Keeping healthy eyes can help you in making a positive difference in your overall well-being. It is important to be aware of common eye disorders or symptoms because common disorders of the eye might increase the chances of vision loss or vision impairment. Following are the common signs and symptoms of eye conditions:
Red Eyes – the redness of eyes can be caused by various injuries or conditions which can further lead to swelling, vision impairment, or irritation. Majorly, when the eyes’ small blood vessels become inflamed, the white part of the eyes seems pink or red. This symptom can lead to many eye problems such as conjunctivitis (pink eye), eye allergies, blepharitis, and uveitis.
Headache – this is the most common eye condition and this can be associated with different serious eye problems such as cataracts, allergies, migraine, corneal abrasion, strabismus, and keratoconus.
Floaters – these are the dots, specks, lines, or webs which appear in the way of your vision, Though it seems to be in front of your eyes it is floating behind or inside the vitreous. Majorly, floaters are not harmful and they fade automatically and go away over time. Commonly, you may observe them while looking at something plain such as a black wall. This symptom may lead to severe eye problems such as:
- 1. Eye lymphoma
- 2. Diabetic retinopathy
- 3. Uveitis
- 4. A detached or torn retina
- 5. Posterior vitreous detachment
Dry eyes – this symptom can make you feel irritated, gritty, scratchy, etc. Dry eyes may cause severe conditions which are normally caused when your eyes are not producing enough tears for keeping the eye lubricated. Majorly, dry eye is the sign of the chronic dry eye, bell’s palsy, and blepharitis.
Presbyopia – Presbyopia means when the eye of a person gradually loses the ability to see or focus on things up close. In simple terms, when you face difficulties in seeing near objects then there are chances of you having presbyopia.
What are some common treatments for conditions that affect the eyes?
There are various common eye conditions that affect the eyes such as dry eyes, presbyopia, floaters, cataracts, and many more. The major problems or eye conditions like presbyopia, cataracts, etc. can only be treated with the help of surgeries or doctors’ descriptions. Furthermore, common eye conditions like dry eyes can be treated by using a humidifier in your home, eye drops prescribed by your doctor, testosterone eyelid cream, or by having nutritional supplements with omega-3 and fish oil.
Presbyopia can be treated or cured by using contact lenses, reading glasses, or LASIK surgery as it helps permanently restore vision impairment.
Furthermore, for treating other eye conditions or problems you must consult your doctor. Glamyo Health can help you in treating or curing different kinds of eye conditions and even with severe eye problems like cataracts or other vision impairments.
Vision plays a very vital role as about 80% of what we perceive comes through the sense of vision or sight which is why it is important for people to be aware of the symptoms of different eye conditions that may affect their eyes such as floaters, presbyopia, red eyes, uveitis, etc. It is also important to consult your doctor for major eye conditions.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the parts of the eye anatomy?
Retina, Pupil, Cornea, Aqueous Humour, Vitreous Humour, Optic Nerve, and Iris are the parts of eye anatomy.
What is the corner of eye called?
Canthus is known as the eye corner where the lower and upper eyelids meet.
What are rods and cones?
Rods and cones are the receptors in the retina which are responsible for your sense of vision.
Where is the macula located?
Near the centre part of the retina, the macula is located.
What is the main nerve for sight?
Optic nerve is the major nerve for vision or sight.
What is the most sensitive part of the eye?
Macula is the most sensitive part of the eyes.
What is the cornea?
Cornea is the transparent part of the eyes which covers the pupil and iris.
What are ganglion cells?
They are projection neurons of the vertebrate retina which conveys messages or information to the brain from the retinal neurons.