An inside organ pulls a weak part of your muscle or tissue when a hernia occurs. There are several forms of hernia, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernias, and hiatal hernia. It is vital to treat it promptly to avoid further complications when you have a hernia. The majority of hernias develop between the chest and the hips within the abdominal cavity.

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Types of Hernia: 

1. Inguinal Hernia: An inguinal hernia is caused by a tissue, such as a part of intestine, protrudes from a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. The consequent bulge can be painful, particularly when you cough, bend or lift a heavy object. Although, many type of hernias normally do not cause pain.

2. Femoral Hernia: The fatty tissue or part of the intestines appears on the top of the inner thigh. Femoral hernias are considerably less prevalent than inguinal hernias and affect elderly women mainly.

3. Umbilical Hernia: in this type of hernia part of the intestines or Fatty tissue press the abdomen around the navel (belly button).

4. Hiatal (Hiatus) Hernia: Part of the stomach pushes through a hole in the diaphragm into the chest cavity (the horizontal sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen).

Other Types of Hernias Include:

1. Incisional Hernia: Tissue protrudes from a abdominal scar that is caused by an abdominal or pelvic surgery.

2. Epigastric Hernia: Fatty tissue presses from the abdominal region between the navel and the lower part of the sternum (breastbone).

3. Spigelian Hernia: At the side of abdominal muscle, the intestine pushes through the abdomen, under the navel.

4. Diaphragmatic Hernia: The organs of the abdomen are moved into the chest through a diaphragm opening.

Hernia Causes

Inguinal and Femoral Hernias: occur because of weakening muscles which are related to age and repetitive stress on the abdomen and groin regions, which may have been present from birth. Such stress may be caused by physical work, obesity, frequent coughing, pregnancy, or constipation in the toilet.

An Umbilical Hernia can occur in adults by stressing the abdominal zone, overweight, long term heavy cough or after childbirth.

The cause of Hiatal Hernias is not entirely known although a weakening of the diaphragm might be its cause.

Hernia Symptoms 

A hernia can create a visible bulge or lump in the belly or groin which could shift inside and out and disappear during sleep. The lump may reappear after it has been pushed in, if the patient laughs, cries, strains during a bowel movement or physical activity. 

Additional hernia symptoms include:

1. Swelling in the groin or in the scrotum; (the pouch that contains the testicles).

2. Pain while lifting heavy weight.

3. Extreme pain on the bulge’s location.

4. The bulge size will increase with time.

5. A dull aching sensation.

6. A sensation of fullness or symptoms of blockage of the intestine.

Hiatal hernias bulges don’t appear from the outside. The symptoms may include heartburn, indigestion, swallowing difficulties, frequent bringing back of food and chest pain.

Diagnosis of Hernia

It is generally possible to see or feel a bulge in the region where a hernia has occurred by physical examination. 

Your doctor will probably also utilise imaging tests to aid in diagnosing them. Which includes:

1. abdominal ultrasound

2. CT scan

3. MRI scan

Your doctor may do further tests to examine the interior location of your stomach if a hiatal hernia is suspected:

1. Gastrografin or barium X-ray. The pictures are recorded after drinking a beverage containing diatrizoate meglumine or sodium diatrizoate (Gastrografin) or a solution containing liquid barium. 

2. Endoscopy

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Hernia Treatment

Hernias don’t generally get better naturally, and the only method to heal it is through surgery. However, the best treatment to deal with your hernia will be recommended by the surgeon. If your hernia has to be repaired, the surgeon will design the surgery procedure most suited to your needs.

You can conduct one of three types of surgery:

1. Open Surgery: A cut to the body at the hernia site is made. The tissue that protrudes is set back and the muscular wall that is weakened together is stitched back. Sometimes a type of mesh is inserted to offer additional support.

2. Laparoscopic Surgery: involves the same type of repairs as open surgery. However, small incisions are created in order to allow the insertion of surgical instruments to finish the surgery rather than cut out of the abdomen or groin.

3. Robotic Hernia Repair: The surgeon sits in the operating room on a console and handles the operating tools from the console using robotic instruments. While robotic surgery can also be used to rebuild the abdominal walls, for some minor hernias or weak areas.

There are pros and cons for each sort of operation. The patient’s surgeon chooses the optimal strategy.

What are the Complications if a Hernia is not Treated?

Hernias will not disappear by themselves except for umbilical hernias in new-borns. A hernia may become bigger and more uncomfortable over time, or may develop complications.

Untreated inguinal or femoral hernia may have following complications:

1. Obstruction (incarceration): The intestine traps in the inguinal canal and causes nausea, vomiting, intestinal pain and sore groin lump.

2. Strangulation: Part of the intestine is trapped so that its blood flow is reduced. In such instances an emergency surgery is essential in order to avoid the death of tissue (within hours after occurrence).

Prevention of Hernia

1. Keep ideal body weight by eating healthy and exercising.

2. To avoid constipation, eat plenty of fruit, vegetables and healthy grains.

3. Use the right shape when you lift weights or heavy items. 

4. See a doctor for persistent cough or sneezing if you are sick.

5. Do not smoke.

6. Do not smoke since coughing might result in a hernia.

What can be Expected Following Surgical Treatment for a Hernia?

After surgery, you will be given instructions. These include what diet to follow, how to care for the incision site, and how to take care to avoid physical strain. Hernias may recur regardless of the repair operations. This is sometimes caused by inherent tissue weakness or protracted healing. Smoking and obesity are also major risk factors for hernia recurrence.

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